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Of of pertaining to any method of human communication, either spoken or written, consisting of the use of words in a structured and conventional way, whether united in a system specific to a country or region.

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Language > General language


Language; General language

A word that is coined and applied to an object that already existed, as technological or societal change has meant that it now needs to be differentiated from a newer object. A ...

open and closed texts

Language; General language

Eco describes as 'closed' those texts which show a strong tendency to encourage a particular interpretation - in contrast to more 'open' texts. He argues that mass media texts ...

oppositional code

Language; General language

Within Stuart Hall's framework, this is an ideological code in which the reader, whose social situation places them in a directly oppositional relation to the dominant code, ...

orders of signification

Language; General language

Barthes adopted from Hjelmslev the notion that there are different orders of signification (levels of meaning) in semiotic systems. The first order of signification is that of ...


Language; General language

'Overcoding' refers to structurally simple, conventional and repetitive texts having what information theorists call a high degree of redundancy.


Language; General language

A phenomenon is said to be overdetermined when it can be attributed to multiple determining factors. Overdetermined readings of texts are those in which the preferred reading is ...

paradigmatic analysis

Language; General language

Paradigmatic analysis is a structuralist technique which seeks to identify the various paradigms which underlie the 'surface structure' of a text. This aspect of structural ...