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Of of pertaining to any method of human communication, either spoken or written, consisting of the use of words in a structured and conventional way, whether united in a system specific to a country or region.

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Contributors in Language

Language > General language


Language; General language

A paradigm is a set of associated signifiers which are all members of some defining category, but in which each signifier is significantly different. In natural language there ...

perceptual codes

Language; General language

These is classified here as a type of interpretative code. Some semioticians regard sensory perception as a code. Various arguments are encountered, in particular: a) that ...

phatic function of signs

Language; General language

In Jakobson's model of linguistic communication this is deemed to be one of the key functions of a sign. This function refers to its construction of a relationship between ...


Language; General language

Phonocentrism is a typically unconscious interpretative bias which privileges speech over writing (and consequently) the oral-aural over the visual).

photographic codes

Language; General language

On one occasion, Barthes asserted that a photograph is 'a message without a code'. However, even though photographs are indexical (as well as iconic) photography involves a ...

photographic signs

Language; General language

Unedited photographic and filmic images are indexical rather than simply iconic - though you could call them 'iconic indexes (or indices)'. A photographic image is an index of ...

plane of content

Language; General language

For Hjelmslev and Barthes, the signifieds on the plane of content were: substance of content (which included 'human content', textual world, subject matter and genre) and form of ...