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Philosophy

The study of the truths and principles of being, knowledge, or conduct.

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Philosophy > General philosophy

rationalist

Philosophy; General philosophy

Specifically, continental philosopher of the 17th-18th century such as Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz. These philosophers tended to believe that science abounds in pure, a priori, ...

proper names

Philosophy; General philosophy

The view that proper names simply stand for, or denote, individuals without describing them in any way by philosophers such as J. S. Mill, Russell, and S. Kripke. The contrary ...

the private language argument

Philosophy; General philosophy

Descartes’ arguments (see Cartesian Doubt) eventually led many philosophers (especially Logical empiricists) to adopt phenomenalism and solipsism. Wittgenstein argued (against ...

primary qualities

Philosophy; General philosophy

Qualities such as shape, extension, duration, etc. Which are perceived by several senses and which are thought to be more or less as much a part of the world as of our perception ...

prescriptivism

Philosophy; General philosophy

The view, in ethics that all ethical arguments tactly involve an appeal to some prescriptive premise. Hence, so it is claimed, any moral judgment includes some element of “telling ...

predicate logic

Philosophy; General philosophy

Formal logical systems that include quantification. “Predicate logic” is often contrasted with “propositional logic.”

positivism

Philosophy; General philosophy

Generally, the view that philosophy and science are one, exhaust genuine knowledge, and provide the only available key to rational social action. Varieties of positivism ...