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Translation

The process of converting words and sentences from one language into another with the proper grammar and subject matter relevance.

Contributors in Translation

Translation

back-transformation

Language; Translation

A kind of paraphrase in which surface structures are replaced by other, more basic structures (e.g. event nouns into verbal expressions: wrath > x is angry).

back-translation

Language; Translation

A word-for-word translation of a target text back into the source language, often retaining the structure of the target text. This can be used to explain the translation process for an audience that ...

borrowing

Language; Translation

The use of a source language item in the target language. Typically, these are cultural items such as French baguette or Russian ruble which do not exist in the source language or which are used to ...

brief

Language; Translation

Specifications relating to the purpose for which a translation is needed provided by those who commission translations.

calque

Language; Translation

The process whereby the individual elements of an source language item are translated literally to produce a target language equivalent (e.g. Ministère des finances – Ministry of Finance).

canon

Language; Translation

Texts or text considered part of the heritage of a particular community and thus mandatory reading in school and university curricula.

cataphora

Language; Translation

The use of a linguistic item to refer forward to subsequent elements in the text (e.g. In his speech, the King said . . .).

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