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The branch of knowledge dealing with past events.

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History > Chinese history

township (xiang)

History; Chinese history

The basic government administrative unit below the county level in rural areas. Townships existed before people's communes were organized in 1958 and were reconstituted when ...

one country, two systems

History; Chinese history

A policy originating in the early 1980s that promotes reunification of Hong Kong, Macao,and Taiwan with the mainland and offers them a high degree of autonomy as special ...

production brigade

History; Chinese history

Formerly the intermediate administrative level in the people's commune system, the organizational structure of the collective sector in agriculture. The highest level was the ...

county (xian)

History; Chinese history

Rural administrative unit below the provincial level.

iron rice bowl

History; Chinese history

A Chinese idiom referring to the system of guaranteed lifetime employment in state enterprises, in which the tenure and level of wages are not related to job performance.

village (nong cun)

History; Chinese history

Replaced production brigades from 1982 to 1985 as the lowest-level semiofficial government entity. They provide bureaucratic coordination, and welfare payments and settle ...


History; Chinese history

As used by communists, term refers to political, economic, and social tendencies that stray to the right of orthodox Marxism- Leninism. The Chinese communists long insisted that ...