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The science that comprises the study of the solid Earth and the processes by which it is shaped and changed.

Contributors in Geology



Earth science; Geology

Iron oxide mineral (Fe3O4). Usually tiny black, metallic crystals. Magnetite will attract a magnet and sometimes, in a rock, a hiker's compass needle.

carbonic acid

Earth science; Geology

A mild acid formed when water and carbon dioxide chemically combine in the atmosphere and soil.This acid is a very important component in the development of cave decorations (speleothems).


Earth science; Geology

A descriptive term used for rocks and other earth materials that have an abundance of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). For example, a calcareous sandstone has up to 50% calcium carbonate.


Earth science; Geology

A dating method that uses the growth rate of certain lichen species as an indicator of the age of the surface the lichen is growing on.


Earth science; Geology

A continent formed in the Southern Hemisphere during the Late Paleozoic. It included most of South America, Africa, India, Austrailia, and Antarctica.


Earth science; Geology

A sedimentary rock that is made of hardened clay, silt, or mud. Shale has many layers and splits easily into slabs.

spreading ridge

Earth science; Geology

An area where two of the Earth's plates are moving away from each other is called as spreading ridge.

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