Home > Blossary: Charlotte Bronte
Charlotte Brontë was an English novelist and poet (21 April 1816 – 31 March 1855), the eldest of the three Brontë sisters who survived into adulthood and whose novels have become classics of English literature. She published her best known novel, Jane Eyre, under the pen name Currer Bell. he Rev. A. B. Nicholls, curate of Haworth since 1845, proposed marriage to Charlotte in 1852. The Rev. Mr. Brontë objected violently, and Charlotte, who, though she may have pitied him, was in any case not in love with him, refused him. Nicholls left Haworth in the following year, the same in which Charlotte's Villette was published. By 1854, however, Mr. Brontë's opposition to the proposed marriage had weakened, and Charlotte and Nicholls became engaged. Nicholls returned as curate at Haworth, and they were married, though it seems clear that Charlotte, though she admired him, still did not love him. In 1854 Charlotte, expecting a child, caught pneumonia. It was an illness which could have been cured, but she seems to have seized upon it (consciously or unconsciously) as an opportunity of ending her life, and after a lengthy and painful illness, she died, probably of dehydration.

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Jane Eyre is a young orphan being raised by Mrs. Reed, her cruel, wealthy aunt. A servant named Bessie provides Jane with some of the few kindnesses she receives, telling her stories and singing songs to her. One day, as punishment for fighting with her bullying cousin John Reed, Jane's aunt imprisons Jane in the red-room, the room in which Jane's Uncle Reed died. While locked in, Jane, believing that she sees her uncle's ghost, screams and faints. She wakes to find herself in the care of Bessie and the kindly apothecary Mr. Lloyd, who suggests to Mrs. Reed that Jane be sent away to school. To Jane's delight, Mrs. Reed concurs. Once at the Lowood School, Jane finds that her life is far from idyllic. The school's headmaster is Mr. Brocklehurst, a cruel, hypocritical, and abusive man. Brocklehurst preaches a doctrine of poverty and privation to his students while using the school's funds to provide a wealthy and opulent lifestyle for his own family. At Lowood, Jane befriends a young girl named Helen Burns, whose strong, martyrlike attitude toward the school's miseries is both helpful and displeasing to Jane. A massive typhus epidemic sweeps Lowood, and Helen dies of consumption. The epidemic also results in the departure of Mr. Brocklehurst by attracting attention to the insalubrious conditions at Lowood. After a group of more sympathetic gentlemen takes Brocklehurst's place, Jane's life improves dramatically. She spends eight more years at Lowood, six as a student and two as a teacher. After teaching for two years, Jane yearns for new experiences. She accepts a governess position at a manor called Thornfield, where she teaches a lively French girl named Adèle. The distinguished housekeeper Mrs. Fairfax presides over the estate. Jane's employer at Thornfield is a dark, impassioned man named Rochester, with whom Jane finds herself falling secretly in love. She saves Rochester from a fire one night, which he claims was started by a drunken servant named Grace Poole. But because Grace Poole continues to work at Thornfield, Jane concludes that she has not been told the entire story. Jane sinks into despondency when Rochester brings home a beautiful but vicious woman named Blanche Ingram. Jane expects Rochester to propose to Blanche. But Rochester instead proposes to Jane, who accepts almost disbelievingly. The wedding day arrives, and as Jane and Mr. Rochester prepare to exchange their vows, the voice of Mr. Mason cries out that Rochester already has a wife. Mason introduces himself as the brother of that wife—a woman named Bertha. Mr. Mason testifies that Bertha, whom Rochester married when he was a young man in Jamaica, is still alive. Rochester does not deny Mason's claims, but he explains that Bertha has gone mad. He takes the wedding party back to Thornfield, where they witness the insane Bertha Mason scurrying around on all fours and growling like an animal. Rochester keeps Bertha hidden on the third story of Thornfield and pays Grace Poole to keep his wife under control. Bertha was the real cause of the mysterious fire earlier in the story. Knowing that it is impossible for her to be with Rochester, Jane flees Thornfield. Penniless and hungry, Jane is forced to sleep outdoors and beg for food. At last, three siblings who live in a manor alternatively called Marsh End and Moor House take her in. Their names are Mary, Diana, and St. John (pronounced "Sinjin") Rivers, and Jane quickly becomes friends with them. St. John is a clergyman, and he finds Jane a job teaching at a charity school in Morton. He surprises her one day by declaring that her uncle, John Eyre, has died and left her a large fortune: 20,000 pounds. When Jane asks how he received this news, he shocks her further by declaring that her uncle was also his uncle: Jane and the Riverses are cousins. Jane immediately decides to share her inheritance equally with her three newfound relatives. St. John decides to travel to India as a missionary, and he urges Jane to accompany him—as his wife. Jane agrees to go to India but refuses to marry her cousin because she does not love him. St. John pressures her to reconsider, and she nearly gives in. However, she realizes that she cannot abandon forever the man she truly loves when one night she hears Rochester's voice calling her name over the moors. Jane immediately hurries back to Thornfield and finds that it has been burned to the ground by Bertha Mason, who lost her life in the fire. Rochester saved the servants but lost his eyesight and one of his hands. Jane travels on to Rochester's new residence, Ferndean, where he lives with two servants named John and Mary. At Ferndean, Rochester and Jane rebuild their relationship and soon marry. At the end of her story, Jane writes that she has been married for ten blissful years and that she and Rochester enjoy perfect equality in their life together. She says that after two years of blindness, Rochester regained sight in one eye and was able to behold their first son at his birth.

Domain: Literature; Category: General literature

Jane Eyre è un giovane orfano cresciuto da Mrs. Reed, sua zia crudele, benestante. Un servo di nome Bessie fornisce Jane con alcuni tra i pochi gentilezze che lei riceve, raccontando le sue storie e canzoni di canto a lei. Un giorno, come punizione per aver combattuto con suo cugino bullismo John Reed, zia di Jane imprigiona Jane in sala rossa, la stanza in cui morì zio Reed di Jane. Mentre bloccato nel, Jane, credendo che lei vede il fantasma di suo zio, urla e sviene. Si sveglia per trovare se stessa nella cura di Bessie e il farmacista gentilmente il signor Lloyd, che suggerisce a Mrs. Reed che Jane essere mandato via a scuola. Per la gioia di Jane, la signora Reed concorre. Una volta presso la scuola di Lowood, Jane trova che la sua vita è tutt'altro che idilliaca. Preside della scuola è il signor Brocklehurst, un uomo crudele, ipocrito e abusivo. Brocklehurst predica una dottrina di povertà e privazione ai suoi studenti durante l'utilizzo di fondi della scuola per fornire un ricco e opulento stile di vita per la propria famiglia. A Lowood, Jane fa amicizia con una giovane ragazza di nome Helen Burns, cui forte, martyrlike atteggiamento verso le miserie della scuola è utile e spiacevole a Jane. Un'epidemia di tifo massiccia spazza Dalston, e Helen muore di consumo. L'epidemia provoca anche la partenza del signor Brocklehurst attirando l'attenzione per le condizioni di insalubrità a Lowood. Dopo che un gruppo di colleghi più simpatici avviene su Brocklehurst, vita di Jane migliora drasticamente. Trascorre otto anni più a Lowood, sei come uno studente e due come insegnante. Dopo aver insegnato per due anni, Jane anela per nuove esperienze. Lei accetta una posizione di governante presso un maniero chiamato Thornfield, dove insegna una vivace ragazza francese chiamata Adèle. Il distinta governante Mrs. Fairfax presiede la tenuta. Datore di lavoro di Jane a Thornfield è un uomo scuro, appassionato, Rochester, il nome con cui Jane si ritrova innamorandosi segretamente. Lei Salva Rochester da un incendio una notte, che egli afferma è stato iniziato da un servo ubriaco denominato Grace Poole. Ma perché Grace Poole continua a lavorare a Thornfield, Jane conclude che lei ha non stato detto l'intera storia. Jane sprofonda nel sconforto quando Rochester porta a casa una bella ma viziosa donna di nome Blanche Ingram. Jane si aspetta Rochester da proporre a Blanche. Ma Rochester si propone invece di Jane, che accetta quasi disbelievingly. Arriva il giorno delle nozze, e come Jane e il signor Rochester si preparano a scambiare i loro voti, la voce del signor Mason grida che Rochester ha già una moglie. Mason si presenta come il fratello di quella moglie, una donna di nome Bertha. Signor Mason testimonia che Bertha, Rochester sposata quando era un giovane uomo in Giamaica, è ancora vivo. Rochester non nega attestazioni di Mason, ma lui spiega che Bertha è impazzito. Egli riporta la festa di nozze a Thornfield, dove essi testimoniare l'insano Bertha Mason correvano intorno a quattro zampe e ringhiando come un animale. Rochester mantiene Bertha nascosto sulla terza storia di Thornfield e paga Grace Poole per mantenere la moglie sotto controllo. Berta era la vera causa del fuoco misterioso prima nella storia. Sapendo che è impossibile per lei essere con Rochester, Jane fugge Thornfield. Senza un soldo e affamati, Jane è costretto a dormire all'aperto e mendicare per il cibo. Finalmente, i tre fratelli che vivono in un maniero alternativamente chiamata fine Marsh e Moor House portarla. I loro nomi sono Maria, Diana e St. Fiumi del John (pronunciato "Sinjin") e Jane diventa rapidamente amicizia con loro. St. John è un sacerdote e Jane trova un lavoro di insegnamento in una scuola di carità di Morton. Egli sorprende suo un giorno dichiarando che suo zio, John Eyre, è morto e lei ha lasciato una grande fortuna: 20.000 sterline. Quando Jane chiede come ricevette questa notizia, lei ulteriore shock dichiarando che suo zio era anche suo zio: Jane e il Riverses sono cugini. Jane decide immediatamente di condividere la sua eredità altrettanto con i suoi tre parenti ritrovate. St. John decide di recarsi in India come missionario, ed egli esorta Jane ad accompagnarlo — come sua moglie. Jane accetta di andare in India ma si rifiuta di sposare sua cugina, perché lei non ama lui. St. John pressioni a riconsiderare, e lei dà quasi. Tuttavia, lei si rende conto che lei non può abbandonare per sempre l'uomo che ama veramente quando una notte lei sente la voce di Rochester, chiamando il suo nome sopra i Mori. Jane subito si affretta a Thornfield e rileva che è stato bruciato alla terra di Bertha Mason, che ha perso la vita nell'incendio. Rochester salvato i servi, ma perse la vista e una delle sue mani. Jane si reca a nuova residenza di Rochester, Ferndean, dove vive con due servi di nome John e Mary. Presso Ferndean, Rochester e Jane ricostruire il loro rapporto e presto sposare. Alla fine della sua storia, Jane scrive che è stata sposata per dieci anni Beati e che lei e Rochester godere perfetta uguaglianza nella loro vita insieme. Lei dice che dopo due anni di cecità, Rochester riacquistato la vista in un occhio e fu in grado di Ecco il loro primo figlio, alla sua nascita.

Domain: Literature; Category: General literature

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Jane Eyre is a young orphan being raised by Mrs. Reed, her cruel, wealthy aunt. A servant named Bessie provides Jane with some of the few kindnesses she receives, telling her stories and singing songs...

02:28, 12 September 2014
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