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The process of converting words and sentences from one language into another with the proper grammar and subject matter relevance.

Contributors in Translation



Language; Translation

Spoken translation, sometimes also called ‘interpretation’.


Language; Translation

In relevance theory, this is the use of language in an observer-like manner. In translation, this mode seeks to resemble the original in all relevant aspects.

intersemiotic translation

Language; Translation

Translation between the written word and another medium (e.g. music, art, photography).


Language; Translation

A precondition for the intelligibility of texts, involving the dependence of one text upon another. Horizontal intertexuality involves direct reference to another text. Vertical intertexuality is ...

intralingual translation

Language; Translation

Translation within the same language (e.g. paraphrase or rewording).


Language; Translation

A term used by Venuti (1995) to describe translations which tend to be heavily domesticated (i.e. which conform to the expected linguistic and cultural patterns of the target culture).


Language; Translation

In Nida’s analysis, kernels are the most basic syntactic elements to which a sentence may be reduced.

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