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A branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals or physical agents on living organisms, as well as the symptoms, mechanisms, treatments and detection of poisoning, especially the poisoning of people.

Contributors in Toxicology


relative systemic availability

Biology; Toxicology

Quantity of metabolizable substance divided by product of quantity of absorbed substance and exposure.

reference value

Biology; Toxicology

Quantity value, generally accepted as having a suitably small measurement uncertainty, to be used as a basis for comparison with values of quantities of the same kind.

reactive nitrogen species (RNS)

Biology; Toxicology

Radical nitrogen-based molecules that can act to facilitate nitrosylation reactions; reactive nitrogen species include dioxidonitrogen(•) (nitrogen dioxide, nitryl radical) NO2•, oxidonitrogen(•) ...

therapeutic index

Biology; Toxicology

Ratio between toxic and therapeutic doses (the higher the ratio, the greater the safety of the therapeutic dose).


Biology; Toxicology

Substance from which another, usually more biologically active, substance is formed.


Biology; Toxicology

Substance intended to kill slime-producing organisms. Note: Used on paper stock, water cooling systems, paving stones etc.

reproductive toxicant

Biology; Toxicology

Substance or preparation that produces non-heritable adverse effects on male and female reproductive function or capacity and on resultant progeny.

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