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A branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals or physical agents on living organisms, as well as the symptoms, mechanisms, treatments and detection of poisoning, especially the poisoning of people.

Contributors in Toxicology


toxicity equivalency factor (in risk assessment) (TEF)

Biology; Toxicology

Ratio of the toxicity of a chemical to that of another structurally related chemical (or index compound) chosen as a reference. Factor used to estimate the toxicity of a complex mixture, commonly a ...

point mutation

Biology; Toxicology

Reaction that changes a single base pair in DNA.

sister chromatid exchange (SCE)

Biology; Toxicology

Reciprocal exchange of chromatin between two replicated chromosomes that remain attached to each other until anaphase of mitosis; used as a measure of mutagenicity of substances that produce this ...


Biology; Toxicology

Reciprocal of risk: practical certainty that injury will not result from a hazard under defined conditions. Note 1. Safety of a drug or other substance in the context of human health: the extent to ...

risk identification

Biology; Toxicology

Recognition of a potential hazard and definition of the factors required to assess the probability of exposure of organisms or people to that hazard and of harm resulting from such exposure.

surface layer

Biology; Toxicology

Region of space comprising and adjoining the phase boundary between a solid and liquid phase, between a solid and gas phase, or between a liquid and gas phase within which properties of matter are ...

temporary maximum residue limit

Biology; Toxicology

Regulatory value established for a specified, limited time when only a temporary acceptable daily intake has been established for the pesticide concerned or, with the existence of an agreed ...

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